Security information and event management (SIEM) is a software solution to take event logs collected from all supported information technology (IT) infrastructure and applications and provide actionable security intelligence. These enterprise solutions provide real-time analysis of security alerts generated by applications and network hardware, providing an interface for research and analysis of provided data and alarms, while also providing an interface for deeper investigations and tracking the full scope of an event.
SIEM solutions have been around for many years, with different degrees of functionality and features depending on the product or vendor you choose.
The SIEM also provides a collection point for all logs, since a common attack profile includes an intruder attempting to cover their tracks by deleting the event logs from a compromised system. A SIEM collects the event logs in real-time, so even if the logs are deleted from the compromised system later, the events are still available for review from the SIEM copy of the logs. This helps preserve evidence and allows for detailed analysis of events even during a successful attack.
At its core, a SIEM is a data aggregator, search tool, and reporting system. SIEM gathers immense amounts of data from your entire networked environment, consolidates all that data and makes it human accessible. With the data categorized and laid out at your fingertips, an analyst can research possible data security breaches with as much detail as needed.
Summary of Capabilities
In practice many products in this area will have a mix of log-related functions, so there will often be some overlap – and many commercial vendors also promote their own terminology. A full solution will include simple collection and storage of log messages and audit trails, long-term storage as well as analysis and reporting of collected log data, real-time monitoring of new log events, correlation of events, notifications as suspicious events are collected, and console views for graphical analysis and research.
A key focus of a solution is to monitor and help manage user and service privileges, directory services and other application or system-configuration changes; as well as providing log auditing and review, analysis of related events, and incident response.